Equality and diversity
The ratio of male to female lecturers is relatively equal, but as academic positions become more senior the proportion of women declines.
In 2015-16, 50 per cent of lecturers were female. Only 40 per cent of senior lecturers were female and just 24 per cent of professors were female.
Women were also under-represented in positions of senior management (37 per cent), especially among vice-chancellors and principals (20 per cent).
These gender differences are diminishing. The share of senior lecturers who are female has increased by 1.6 percentage points since 2012-13, as women filled 58 per cent of the 2,000 additional senior lecturer posts that were created.
The share of professors who are female has also increased, by 1.7 percentage points since 2012-13. However, gender parity at professorial level is still likely to take many years to achieve: of new professorial positions created since 2012-13 only about two out of five have been filled by women.
The proportion of academic staff who are of black or minority ethnicity (BME) also declines with seniority. In 2015-16, 15 per cent of lecturers were BME, but this fell to 11 per cent for senior lecturers and 9 per cent for professors. Only 3 per cent of vice-chancellors and principals were BME. These proportions are lower when international staff are excluded.