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To help inform the development of the Research Excellence Framework (REF), HEFCE commissioned RAND Europe to carry out a review of international approaches to evaluating the impact of research. This report presents the findings of the review, based on four case study examples.

The review identifies relevant challenges and lessons from international practice and suggests that the work of the Australian RQF Working Group on Impact Assessment might provide a basis for developing an approach to impact in the REF. The report makes a number of other recommendations concerning attribution, burden and the role of research users, which are outlined in the executive summary.